Database Management Basics

Database management is the system for managing information that supports the company’s business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to application programs and users making changes as needed, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from being damaged by unexpected failures. It is an integral part of the entire informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act

The first database systems were created in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory, to supporting complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that organizes data in accordance with an established pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and permit cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of attributes or fields that contain information about data entities. The most widely used type of database that is currently in use is a relational model developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it simpler to update data, avoiding the need to modify different sections of the database.

Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational issues such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a mixture of different external views based on different data models. It also could include virtual tables that are computed using generic data in order to improve the performance.